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State of the Creek Nation

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Source Name Image(s)
CollectionOhio Historical Society: Walker Family Papers view image
Document Information
Date March 13, 1791
Author Name James Casey (primary) Location: Philadelphia
Recipient Name Henry Knox (primary)
Summary Comprehensive treatment of every aspect of the culture and lives of the Creek Nation of Indians in 1790-1791. Includes transcript of a journal. 132 page document.
Document Format Copy of document
Document Notes A 132 page document, the first pages of which consist of the transcript of a journal for the period from 8/19/1790 to 1/17/1791. This document was included in the letter to Knox, dated 4/29/1791.
Content Notes [not available]
Related Persons/Groups Henry Knox; Caleb Swan; Lieutenant Colonel J. C. Casey; Creek Indians; Choctaws; Chickasaws; Cherokees; Alexander McGillivray; House of Panton & Company; ;
Related Places Philadelphia; Rock Landing; ;
Keywords Topographical Observations; Origins of the Muscogies or Creek Indians; Notes on the Seminoles; Population and Military Strength of the Creek Indians; Ceremonies, Customs, and Opinions of the Creek Indians; Ceremony of the Black Drink, a military institution blemded with religious opinions; Ceremony of the Busk; Ceremonies of Courtship and Marriage; Manner of Burying the Dead; Habits, Manners, and Customs of the Creeks; Persons and Figures of the Creek Indians; Method of Counting Time; Their Public Amusements; First intercourse of the Creeks with the White People; Present Mode of Government; State of the Agriculture; Political relative situation; Present state of trade with the Southern Indians; Vocabulary of the Principal Words in the Language of the Creek Indians; Familiar sentences; Remarks on the Characters of the Choctaws; Account of the Spanish Strength in the Floridas and Louisiana, 1790.;
Key Phrases Being condemned by the custon of the Country to pound corn, carry burdens, and perform all the hard labor,[Creek women] are universally masculine in appearance without one blandishment to render them desireable or lovely.

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Lieut Col J. C. Casey's Vocabulary of the Creek Schoolcraft Indians [illegible]

Transcript of my Journal-
August 19th 1790. Sailed from New-York with Brig. General McGillivray and the Indian chiefs of the Creek Nation bound to StMary's river in Georgia.—
September 1st Captain Smith of the Schooner we were in imprudently run the vessel through a large breaker at the North end of Cumberland Island—The Vessel struck on the sands several times and afterwards went over.—
2d Arrived all Safe at Captain Burbecks post on StMarys, and received a visit of compliment from Don Carolus Caxlon Howard Sec.y of the Government of East Florida, Mr Leslie and others from StAugustine.—
8th Proceeded up the river and remained three days at Col. L. Marberys procuring horses — here several of the chiefs of the Lower Creeks seperated and pursued their routes homeward —
Sept. 11th Took our departure from Spanish Creek at The head of St Marys river— incessant rains and 5 of [illegible]
horses died on the way.
21st Came to the Alabaha a branch of StMarks river, found it flooded [overwritten and struck out] for half a mile on each side [overwriting:] over its natural banks.— Our present prospects are gloomy— Our provisions and clothing wasted and spoiled by the rains—our progress impeded by the floods, and we are 170 mile advansed from any white settlement—
22d Endeavoured to build a Canoe — having but one small hatchet, the attempt was fruitless—.—
23d The waters continue to rise
24— The waters come to a Stand
25— The Indians killed a stray cow in the woods and stretched her skin over hoops into the shape of a bowl, with which to make the experiment of getting over the river.—
26th Early in the morning the Indians commenced the business by swimming and towing the Skin boat by a string which they hold in their teeth; Setting up a general War Hoop to frighten away the Voracious alligators that inhabit this river in
Vast numbers—— By uncommon and hazardous exertion we were with all our baggage safely towed over and landed (to our great Joy) on the opposite side about dark, having met with no accident, except the loss of 4 horses which were entangled in the vines and drowned in swimming through the water.—.—
27th Supplied ourselves with 15 fresh horses taken from J. Kinnards Negroes, whom we met in the woods bound to StMary's with a drove for sale.—
28.&29th Journeyed in the wilderness being much exhausted with fatigue and on short allowance of provisions.—.—
Sept 30th Arrived at the Chehaw Towns on Flint river, found the Indians assembled in great numbers to hear the tidings from their Chiefs whom they had given up for lost.—
October 1st Encamped at John or Jack Kinnard living on the borders of the Lower Creeks and Seminolies and here replenished our provisions —
5th Crossed the Chattahoosee river at the broken arrow
12 miles below the Cussitah and Coweta towns.
7th Crossed the Tallaposee at the town of the [struck out: town of the] Tuckabatchees. Here the chief (M Gillivray) made some further communications to the people who were assembled to hear his talk.—
8th Arrived at Little Tallassie on the Allabamous river
20th Attended a General meeting called by the Mad dog King of the Tuckabatchees, where McGillivray made some further communications to the red people, Some seem pleased others throw their Tobacco into the fire in disgust.
October 21st Snow fell an inch deep in this Country—
22d The moon totally eclipsed and Served to regulate my account of time, which from a variety of causes I have not been able to keep accurately.— Note [space] The Indians in all the Surrounding Villages are yelling with fear, and firing guns in all directions — They have an opinion on those occasions, that a frog is swallowing the moon, and make all their most hideous noises to frighten it away—.—
19th A young woman Sister to McGillivrays wife hanged herself in a fit of violent passion but was cut down and saved.—
November 20th A woman related to McGillivray hanged herself at little Tallassie, and was privately buried in the village the same evening—.—
November 26th Charles Weatherford brought me a letter from the Secretary of War dated 15th September last
December 15th Left little Tallassie for the upper country and arrived at the Natchez Villages in two days.—
20th Went over to the district of the Hillabes.—
21st Arrived at the Ufalas and attended the square three times to the ceremony of the black drink, at the pressing invitation of the White Lieutenant— Note [space] The white Lieutenant a half breed Indian, is the great War Mico of the whole district of the Oakfuskies.— In point of appearance and abilities as an orator he stands unrivaled by any chief in the Country — He is about 50 years of age—6 feet 2 inches high—and well
made and is said to have the sole influence over 1000 Gun men — He has a certain benevolence in his countenance, and Gentleness in his manners that savours more of civilization than any other Indian that I have seen.—
December 22d Crossed the Chattahoosee by the upper war path at the horse ford 60 miles above the Cussitah and Coweta towns.—
24th Crossed Flint river at the upper falls and stretched down the Country in a S. E. direction.—
27th Crossed the Oakmulgee at the upper falls [wing-shaped flourish]
Note [space] All the lands on the this path from the Indian villages on the Chattahoosee river eastward, to the Oakmulgee and even to the Oconee rivers, are of a most superior quality It might give pain to a traveller who now must view it but as a forlorn rude desert, which with a little labour might be made to "Blossom like the rose"
28th crossed the Oconee at the falls 10 miles above Capt. Savage's post at the rock landing—.—
1791. January 17. left the Rock landing and arrived in Philadelphia via New York on the 13th March 1791.—.—
Topographical Observations
St Marys river is very crooked with a wide open marsh on each side, from its mouth upwards for 30 miles—where the marsh is terminated by thick woods; the river then becomes nearly strait for 30 miles farther up to Allens an Indian trader at the head of its navigation— At this trading station the river is like a dead Creek, about four fathoms deep and 10 rods wide — It is well laid down in the Reverend Mr Mors’s map, but the great Okafanoka Swamp which is the Source of the river is misplaced entirely — instead of spreading itself north westerly into Georgia, it extends away Southerly into East Florida.
The old path from St Marys to the Creek nation is difficult to be traced, having been little used since 1783—
After leaving St Marys for 100 miles westward it is a continual Soft thiry [i.e., thirsty] pine barren, affording neither water or food for men or horses. It is so poor indeed that the common game of the woods are not to be found in it.
The Alabaha is a consederable river not laid
down on any of the common Maps of the Southern Country 100 miles west from the head of St Marys and runs in a Southerly direction — It is often difficult to be crossed, the banks are low and [a driving? at every?] rain swells it to more than a mile in [width?] — In a freshet the current is rapid, and passengers are liable to be entangled in vines and bryars and drowned.— There is also real danger from its great number of [hungry?] alligators.—
From the Alabama it is 90 miles to the Chehau Villages low down on Flint river, and a continual pine barren all the way tho less sterile than that left behind
Flint River is about 30 rods wide and from 12 to 15 feet deep in Summertime, with a gentle current—
It is 30 miles from the villages of the Chehaus to Jack Kinnards a rich half breed Chief—from Kinnards to the tribes of the Euchees and Hitchilees [i.e., Hitchitees] is about 80 miles, where the path crosses the chattahoosee river, twelve miles below the Cussitah and Coweta towns, at a village called the broken arrow .—
The Chattahoosee River is about 30
[undecipherable] and full of Shoals. The lands in general upon it are light and Sandy and The Clay of a bright red. - The lower Creeks are settled in scattering clans and villages from the head to the mouth of this river - And from the high colour of the Clay, their huts and Cabbins at a little distance resemble Clusters of new burned bricks kilns -
From the Chattahoosee to the Tallassoosee river is about 70 miles by the main path, which crosses at the falls just above the town of the Tuckabatchee -
The Tallapoosee rises in the high lands near the Cherokees it runs through the high Country of the Oaktuskee tribes in a westwardly direction, and is full of rocks falls and shoals until it reaches the Tuckabatchees, where it becomes deep and quiet from thence the course of it is west for about 30 miles to Little Tallassie, where it unites with the Coosa or CoosaHatchee
The Coosa River also rises in the high land
near the Cherokees_ Its course is generally south, running through the country of the Natchez and other tribes of the upper Creeks, the roughest and most broken district in the whole Nation_ It is rapid and so full of rocks and shoals that altho there is a sufficiency of water, it is hardly navigable even for Canoes_ It joins with the Tallapoosie at the little Tallassie, and there forms the beautiful river Alabama, which continues in a south westerly direction to the bay of Mobile
This long river and its main branches form the western line of settlements or villages of the Creek Nation, but their hunting grounds extend 200 miles beyond to the Tombigbee river, which is the dividing line between their Country and that of the Choctaws.—
The Alabama River is remarkable for its gentle current, pure waters and good fish, it runs about two miles an hour, it is 70 or 80 rods wide at the head of it, and from 15 to 18 feet deep in the dryest season of the year_ The banks are about 50 feet high and seldom or never overflowed_ Travellers who have navigated it
in large boats in the month of May, have gone in 9 days from little Tallassie to Mobile bay, and compute the distance by water to be about 350 miles_ This river for forty miles downward [inserted: and probably much farther] is very beautiful. it has high clear fields all along the banks that afford romantic Views of its different courses and windings for miles together. having no shoals or sand spits it might be navigated with large boats up to McGillivrays at little Tallassie, through the Centre of an inviting fertile and extensive Country, capable of producing every thing necessary to the comfort and convenience of Mankind._
The surrounding country is well watered the Soil is of a dark brown Colour with a deep strata of red or brown Clay, and with the slovenly management even of the savages it produces most abundantly.—
It is well timbered with oak. Hickory mulberry poplar wild cherry, wild locust, laurel, cypress, Bay Gum, Cedar[,] Iron and white Cork woods_ The lowlands and bottoms are interspersed with numerous canebreaks
of enormous growth, and the higher grounds and banks of rivers produce Ginseng and the Sennaca or Snake root, and the genuine Sarsaparilla of Mexico in perfection __ There are also a great variety of other medicinal plants and herbs, which remain to be annalized by the skillful botanist, and without doubt will be found as valuable and important as any hither to discovered_._
There are abundance of small waterfalls and mill seats of constant water, to be had in all parts of the country within a few miles of each other_
There are useful mines and minerals on the Alabama, some Specimens of which I have collected and have the honour herewith to present.—
The western parts of the Country of the Creeks particularly, tho but small compared to the whole, is without doubt from its natural advantages, of more real value than all the rest of their Territory._
The whole of the Country claimed by the Creeks within the limits of the United States, at a moderate computationmust contain nearly 84.000 square miles,
according to Bowens Maps and Surveys annexed hereto which by good Judges are affirmed to be correct.
At present it is but a rude wilderness exhibiting many natural beauties, which are only rendered unpleasant by being in possession of the jealous natives
The Country possesses every species of wood and Clay proper for building, and The Soil and climate seem well Suited to the culture of Corn, Wine, Oil, Silk, hemp, Rice, wheat, Tobacco, Indigo, every species of Fruit trees and English grass_ And must in process of time become a most delectable part of the United States. And with a free Navigation through the bay of Mobile may probably one day or other be the Seat of Manufactures and Commerce.
The Climate of this Inland Country is remarkably healthy, The wet and dry Seasons are regular and periodical_ The rainy Season is from Christmas to the beginning of March and from the middle of July to the latter end of September_
Between these two periods there is seldom much rain or cloudy weather._ The constant breezes which are probably occasioned by the high hills and numerous rapid water courses, render the heat of Summer very temperate, and towards the autumn they are delightfully perfumed by the ripening Aromatic Shrubbery, which abounds throughout the Country_._ The winters are soft and mild and the Summers sweet and wholesome._
There are no stagnant waters or infectious fogs about the rivers_ Consequently neither Alligators Muskeetoos or Sand flies have ever been found to infest this Country_._
The Animals of the Forest in this country differ little from those at the Northward, the Tiger or panther is more common here, but of less size than those taken towards Canada._ Large black wolve[s] are plenty and I believe peculiar to the Country_
The birds in this region resemble ours in the Northern States in every respect, but in addition
may be counted the Land Storke of a prodigious Size, commonly called the pine barren hooping crane_ There are also great numbers of paroquets, and the beautiful red bird so much sought for by the Europeans, and called by them the Virginia Nightingale._
The reptiles here are (except being generally larger and more thrifty) very much like those found in the Northern Climates_ But the Gofer, a species of the land tortoise, might deserve some attention from the Curious Naturalist_ this creature lives on the land altogether, feeds on grass and chews the quid like a sheep_ he retires to his hole in some sandy place in day time, and at night comes out to feed: he is of the Shape of common land tortoises and of enormous strength - Altho but of about 8 or 10 inches in length, and 6 or 8 in breadth, he is able to walk on hard ground carrying the heaviest man on his back with tollerable ease._ The Indians have a belief that this animal has the power of causing droughts or floods, they therefore whenever they meet with one, dash him to pieces with religious violence.—
Origin of the Muscogies or Creek Indians
Men of the best information and largest acquaintance with the Indians give the following account of the rise and progress of the nation._ _
Tradition handed down from one generation to another, has established a general belief among them (which may be true) that a long time ago some strange wandering clans of Indians from the North-west, found their way down to the present Country of the Seminolies; There meeting with plenty of game they settled themselves in the Vicinity of the then powerful tribes of The Florida and Appalachian indians - that for some time they remained on a friendly footing with each other: The new comers were stiled Seminolies (signifying wanderers or lost men)
The wanderers from the North increased and at length became so powerful a body as to excite the jealousy of their Appalachian neighboures, wars ensued and finally The Seminolies became Masters of the Country " The remnants of the Appalachians
were totally destroyed by the Creeks in 1719." -
In process of time the game of the Country was found insufficient to Support their encreasing numbers, Some Clans and families emigrated northward and took possession of the present district of the Cowetas - having established themselves there, other emigrations followed, and in time, spread themselves eastward as far as the Oakmulgee river, and other waters of Georgia and South Carolina, and westward as far as the Tallapoosie and Coosa rivers, which are the main branches of the Alabama - Here they were encountered by the Alabama nation whom they afterward conquered, and by restoring to them their lands and river gained their attachment, and they were incorporated with the Creek Nation. - The Creeks became famous for their abilities and warlike prowess, and being possessed of a well watered Country, were distinguished from their ancestors (the Seminolies of the low barren Country) by the name of Creeks or Muscogies. -
The kind Soil pure water and air of their Country being favourable to their constitutions as warriors, has perhaps
perhaps contributed to give them a character Superior to most of the nations that Surround them. -
Their numbers have increased faster by the acquisition of foreign subjects than by the increase of the original Stock - It appears long to have been a maxim of their policy to give equal liberty and protection to tribes conquered by themselves, as well as to those vanquished by others; altho many individuals taken in war are Slaves amongst them, And their Children are called of the Slave race, and cannot arrive to much honorary distinction in the Country on that account. -
The Alabamas and Coosades are said to be the first who adopted the ceremonies and customs of the Creeks and became part of the Nation. The Natchez or Sun Set Indians from the Mississippi joined the Creeks about 50 years since, after being driven out of Louisiana, and added considerably to their confederative body - Any now the Shawnaese, called by them Sawanes are joining them in large numbers every year, having already four towns on the Tallapoosee river that contain near 300 war men and more are soon expected.__
Notes on the Seminolies
The Seminolies are in small wandering hordes thro the whole Country from the point of East Florida to the Appalachiacola river, near which they have Micasuka and some other permanent Settlements - Their Country being sandy and barren occasions those who cannot live by fishing along the Sea Shore to scatter in small clans and families through the inland Country wherever they can find hommocks of rising ground, upon which they can raise corn, or in other places accommodated with water which is very scarce throughout the Country - They are considerably numerous but poor and miserable beyond description_ being so thinly scattered over a barren desert, they seldom assemble to taek black drink or deliberate on Public matters like the upper and lower Creeks -
The Seminolies are the original Stock of The Creek Nation, but their language has undergone so great a change, that it is hardly understood by
the upper Creeks or even by themselves in general[.] It is preserved by many old people and taught by women to their children as a kind of religious duty, but as they grow to manhood they forget and lose it by the more frequent use of the modern tongue. They are more unsettled in their manner of living than any other district of people in the Nation.
Their Country is a place of refuge for vagrants and murderers from every part of the nation, which by flying from the upper and lower districts to this desert, are able to elude the pursuit and revenge of even Indians themselves. -
The term Seminolies (Signifying wanderer) is well applied to them, for they are most of them Continually shifting from one place to another every year - . -
The foregoing account of the Seminolies was given by General McGillivray who seldom if ever has visited their Country - he is known to them as their Great Chief, but few of them have ever seen him - . -
The Seminolies are said to be principally under the influence of Jack Kinnard, a rich Scotch half breed, living on the neck of land between flint and the Chattahoosee rivers, 90 miles below the Cussitah and Coweta towns - And of a Spanish half breed Chief living on the Appalachiacola river near the micasuka Village called the Bully, but the truth is they have no government among them - . -
Kinnard is a noted trader, farmer and herdsman - he has two wives about 40 valuable negroes and some indian Slaves; he has from 12 to 1500 head of Cattle and horses, and commonly from 5 to 6000 Spanish dollars in his house, which are the produce of cattle he sells -
He accumulated his property entirely by plunder and freebooting during the American war and the late Georgia quarrel - This raised him to the dignity of a chief and enabled him to go largely into trade by which he Supplies all the Indians around
him, who are dupes to his avarice - He cannot read or write, and commonly has some mean person about his house to do it for him: He is addicted to excessive drunkeness and like all half breeds is very proud of being white blooded. He is a despot, shoots his negroes when he pleases and has cut off the ears of one of his favorite wives with his own hands, in a drunken fit of Suspicion
He is of so much consequence in his own Country, as to threaten the Spaniards into compliance with almost anything he demands -
The following is a copy of a letter he dictated and sent to Don Juan Nepomecena de Quesada the Governor of St. Augustine in August 1790.
The Governor in consequence released Allen the prisoner, and sent an express near 700 miles up to little Tallassie with a statement of the affair to Mr. McGillivray
"I send you this talk - Our people have had a talk given out here, that our beloved white man James Allen is put in jail by your talk for
making the red men take away Langs cattle when Lang owed him 170 chalks which was right; James Allen is our beloved white man, and must be given to us in 20 days back again to buy our horses as he did before; Now give him back and Save you trouble - which shall be - now - this is my talk! - [inserted above and below middle K: his / mark] John K Kinnard"
The Bully is a man of as much property and influence as Kinnard - He is about 50 years old, keeps 3 young wives - For Size and Strength has never Yet found his equal - he is Master of the Art of English boxing - And has been the Samson of these philistines from his youth upwards . -
Population and Military Strength of the
Creek Nation
The smallest of their towns range from 20 to 30 houses [undecipherable], and some of the largest contain from 150 to 200 that are tollerably compact. - These houses stand in clusters of 4. 5. 6. 7. & 8 together irregularly distributed up & down the banks of rivers or Small Streams - each cluster of houses contain a clan or family of relations, who eat and live in common. - Each town has a public Square hot house and Yard near the centre of it, appropriated to various public uses, of which I shall endeavour to give a particular description together with the ceremonies performed therein, hereafter.-
The following are the names of the principal towns of the upper and lower Creeks that have Public Squares, beginning at the head of the Coosa or Coosa Hatcha river . -
viz -
[Left column:]
1. Upper Ufalas
2. Abbacoochees
3. Natchez
4. Coosas
5. Oleetoocheenas
6. Pinclatchas
[Center column:]
7. Pocuntullahases
8. Weeokees
9. Little Tallassie
10. Tuskeegees
11. Coosadas
12. Alabamas
[Right column:]
13. Tawasas
14. Pawactas
15 Autobas
16. Auhoba
17. Weelumpkees, big
18. Welumpkees little
19. Wacacays
20. Wacksoy Ochees
Central inland in the high Country between the Coosa and Tallapoosie rivers - in the district called The Hillabees. are the following towns viz -
[Left column:]
21. Hillabees
22. Killeegko
23. Oakchoys
[Right column:]
24. Slakagulgas
25. Wacacoys
And on the waters of the Tallapoosie from the head of the river downward the following viz - . -
[Left column:]
26. Tuckabatchee Telhassa
27. Tolacaga
28. New York ⁜
29. Chalaaepauley
30. Soguspogus_
31. Oakfuskee
32. Ufala little
33. Ufala big
34. Sogahatches
[Right column:]
35. Tuckabatchees
36. Big tallassie or halfway house
37. Clewauleys
38. Coosahatchees
39. Coolamies
40. Shawanese or Savanas
41. Kenhucka
42. Muckeleses
[bracket enclosing numbers 40-42 from right:] Shawanese refugees
⁜ Named by Colo. Ray a N•..York British Loyalist
Of the Lower Creeks beginning on the head waters of the Tallapoosie, and so on downward are the following towns of . -
[N.B. Several lower-case T's were left uncrossed in the following list.]
[Left column:]
43. Chelucco Ninny
44. Chattahoosie
45. Hohlatoga
46. Cowetas
[inserted line:] 47. Cassitahs
[overwritten: 47]48. Chalagatsea or broken arrow
[Right column:]
49. Euchees_several
50. Hitchatees_several
51. Palachuola
52. Chewackola_
Besides near 20 towns and villages of the little and big Chehaus low down on flint and Chattahoosie rivers, The names of which I could not ascertain -
From their roving and unsteady manner of living it is impossible to determine with much precision the number of Indians that compose The Creek Nation
General McGillivray estimates the number of Gun men to be between 5 and 6000, exclusive of the Seminolies who are of little or no account in war, except as small parties of Marauders, acting independent of the genral interest of the others -
The useless old men the women & children
may be reckened as three times the number of Gun men, making in the whole about 25 or 26000 Souls. Every Town and village has one established white trader in it, and there are Several neighbourhoods besides that have traders - Each Trader commonly employs one or two [inserted: white] pack horsemen, besides these there is in almost every town one family of whites, and in some two who do not trade; These last are people who have fled from some part of the frontiers to this asylum of liberty - . -
It may be conjectured with safety that to include the whites of every description throughout the Country, they will amount to nearly 300 persons - A number sufficient to contaminate all the natives, for it is a fact that every town is under the principally under the influence of the white men residing in it, And as most of them have been attached to the British in the late war, and of course have from loss of friends and property, retained bitter resentments against the people of the United States, and more especially against those living on the frontiers — They often to [sic] have revenge, and to obtain plunder that may betaken use their influence to
Send out predatory parties against the Settlements in their vicinity - . -
The Creek Indians are very badly armed, the Chief has made it a point to furnish them with musquets, in preference to rifles, which from the necessity of being wiped out after every shot, have been found less convenient than the former; their musquets are of the slender French manufacture procured through the Spanish Government at Pensacola; but are so slightly made that they soon become useless for any service _._
If the Indians were able to purchase for themselves they would however prefer rifles in all cases, because they find them more sure and lasting, a good one will at any time command The price of 100 chalks or 50 dollars to be paid in Skins or horses in the Country
The most influential chiefs of The Country either in peace or war, are The Hallowing King of the Cowelas...The white Lieutenant of the Oakfuskies_ The Mad dog king of the Tuckabatches_ The old Tallassie King
Opieth Mico of the half way house at big Tallassie[-] The Dog warrier of the Natchez And old Red Shoes king of The Alabamas and Coosades - A treaty made with the before mentioned chiefs would probably be communicated to all the people of the Country and be believed and relyed upon - . -
[horizontal rule]
Of the Ceremonies Customs and Opinionsof the Creek Indians.—
[horizontal rule]
Of the Square
The Public Squares placed near the Centre of each town, are formed by four buildings of equal Size facing inwards and enclosing an area of about 30 feet on each Side. These houses are made of the same materials as their dwelling houses—but differ by having the front-which faces the Square left entirely open, and the walls of the back sides have an open Space of 2 feet or more nextto
to the eves to admit a circulation of aie; [sic] Each of these houses is partitioned into three apartments making twelve in all, which are called the Cabbins_The partitions which Seperate these cabbins are made of Clay and only as high as a mans shoulder when sitting_ Each cabbin has three seats or rather platforms being broad enough to sleep upon, the first is raised about 2 feet from the ground, the 2d is 8 inches higher, and the 3d or back seat as much above the second — The whole of the seats are joined togather by a covering of cane matts as large as carpets— It is a rule to have a new covering to the seats every year previous to the ceremony of the busk— Therefore—as the old coverings are never removed they have in most of their Squares 8. 10 and 12 coverings laid one upon the other———
The squares are generally made to face the East West, North, and South_ The Centre Cabbin in the East side is always allotted to the beloved or first man of the town and is called the beloved seat_ Three Cabbins on the South side belong to the most distinguished
warriors, and those on the North side to the Second Men &o. The west side is appropriated to hold the lumber and apparatus used in cooking black drink war phisick &c—on the post or on a plank over each of the Cabbins are painted the emblems of the family to whom it is allotted—to wit,— the Buffaloe family have the Buffaloe painted on their Cabbin, the Bear has the Bear and so on.—
Up under the roofs of the houses, are suspended a heterogeneous collection of Emblems and trophiesof peace and war—viz—Eagles fathers—Swans wings—wooden scalping knives—War Clubs—red painted wands—bunches of hoops on which to dry their scalps—remnants of scalps [struck out text]—bunches of hair—bundles of Snake root, war physic—baskets &ca&ca.—
Such posts and other timbers about the square as are smooth enough to admit of it, have a variety of rude paintings of warriors heads with horns—horned Rattle-Snakes—horned Alligators &c.
Some of the Squares in the red orwar
War towns which have always been governed by warriors are called painted squares, having all the posts and smooth timber about them painted red with white or black edges— This is considered a peculiar and very honorary mark of distinction— Some towns also have the privilege of a covered Square, which is nothing more than a loose scaffolding of canes, laid on poles over the whole of the area between the house[s] — Whence these priviledges arose I could never learn, and it is a doubt with me if they know themselves—.—
Travelling Indians having no relations in the town often sleep in the Public Square, as they are passing on their Journey [space] This is one of their antient rites of hospitality, and poor old men and women suffering for want of clothes are entitled to sleep in the hot house of the town they live in if they please
The square is the place for all Public meetings and the performance of all their principal warlike and religious ceremonies —
If a man dies in the town the square is hung
hung full of green boughs as tokens of mourning, and no black drink is taken inside of it for 4 days—
If a warrior or other Indian is killed from any town having a square, black drink must be taken on the outside of the square, and every ceremony in its usual form is laid aside until satisfaction is had for the outrage.—
Each Square has a black drink cook, and two or three young warriors that attend every morning when black drink is to be taken, and warn the people to assemble by beating a drum——.—
Each Square as necessary appendages has a hot house at the north west corner of it—and a May pole with a large circular beaten yard around it at the South west corner, which is called the Chunkey yard— these two places are chiefly appropriated to dancing— The yard is used in warm and the hot house in cold weather—
The hot house is a perfect pyramid of about 25 feet high on a circular base of the same diameter, the walls of it are of clay about 6 feet high, and from there drawn regularly to a point at the top, and covered round with tufts of bark— Inside of the hot house is one
broad circulat seat made of canes and attached to the walls all round. The fire is kindled in the centre and the house having no ventilation soon becomes intolerably hot, yet the savages amidst all the smoke and dust [raised?] from the earthen floor by their violant manner of dancing, bear it for hours together without the least apparent inconvenience. —
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The Ceremony of the Black drinka military institution blended with Religious opinions
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The Black drink is a strong decoction of the shrub well known in the Carolinas by The name of Cassina or the [illegible] Tea.
The leaves are collected parched in a pot until brown, boiled over a fire in the centre of the square[,] dipped out and poured from one pan or cooler into another one and back again, until it ferments and produces a large quantity of white froth, from which with the purifying qualities the indians ascribe to it they stile it white drink But the liquor of itself which if strong is nearly as black [as] molasses is by the white people universally called Black Drink
It is a gentle dyuretic and if taken in large quantities and if taken in large quantities sometimes affects the nerves - if it were qualified with Sugar &c it could hardly be distinguished in taste from strong bok[illegible] tea
Except Rum there is no liquor of which the Creek Indians are so excessively fond, in addition to their habitual fondness for it, they have a religious belief that it infallibly possesses the following qualities viz that it purifies them from all sin and leaves them in a state of perfect innocence - That it inspires them with an invincible prowess in war, and that it is the only solid cement of friendship benevolence and hospitality. Most of them Seem to believe that the great Spirit or Master of breath has communicated the virtues of the black drink to them, and them only (no other Indians being known to use it as they do)— and that it is a peculiar blessing bestowed on them - his chosen people —
Therefore a stranger going among them cannot recommend himself to their protection in any manner so well as by offering to partake of it with them as often as possible. -
The method of serving up black drink in the square is as follows -viz -
The warriors and chiefs being assembled and seated - three young men acting as masters of ceremony on the occasion, each having a gourd or callabash full of the liquor, place themselves in front of the three greatest chiefs or warriors, and announce that they are ready by the word Choh! - After a short pause, stooping forward they run up to the warriors and hold the Cup or shell parralel to their mouths the warriors receive it from the, and wait until the young men fall back and adjust themselves to give what they call the Yohullah or black drink note, as theyoung [sic] men begin to aspirate the note the great men place the cups to their mouths, and are obliged to drink during the aspirated note of the young men [stray marks] which after exhausting their breath, is once repeated on afiner [sic] key, until the lungs are no longer inflated
This long aspiration is continued near half a minute, and the cup is taken from the mouth of the warrior who is drinking, at the instant the note is finished. The young men then receive the Cups from the chiefs or head warriors, and pass it to the others of inferior rank giving them the word Choh! But not the Yohullah note. None are entitled to the long black drink note but the great men, whose abilities, and merit are rated
on this occasion, by the capacity of their stomachs to receive the liquor.
It is generally served round in this manner three times at every meeting. during the recess of serving it up, they are all set quietly in their several cabins and amuse themselves by smoking, conversing, exchanging tobacco &c. and in disgorging what black drink they have previously swallowed. -
Their mode of disgorging, or spouting out the black drink is singular, and has not the most agreeable appearance.- After drinking copiously, the warrior by huging his arms across his stomach, and leaning forward, disgorges the liquor in a large stream from his mouth, to the distance of 6 or 8 feet.- [space] Thus immediately after drinking, they begin spouting on all sides of the square, and in every direction. - And in that country as well as in others more civilized it is thought a handsome accomplishment in a young fellow, to be able to spout well.
They come into the square and go out again on these occasions without formality. -

The Ceremony of the Busk

The Ceremony of the busk is the most important and serious of any observed by the Creek Indians[.] It is the offering up of their first fruits or an annual Sacrifice always celebrated about harvest time. -
When Corn is ripe and the Cassina or new black drink has come to perfection, the busking begins on the morning of a day appointed by the priest or firemaker (as he is stiled) of the town, and is celebrated for four days successively - . -
On the morning of the first day the priest dressed in white leather mockasins and stockings, with a white dressed deer skin over his shoulders, appears at break of day unattended to the Square - His first business is to create the new fire, which he accomplishes with much labour by the friction of two dry sticks - After the fire is produced four young men enter at the openings of the four corners of the Square - each having a stick of wood
for the new fire - they approach the new fire with much reverence, and place the ends of the wood they carry in a very formal manner to it. - After the fire is sufficiently kindled, four other young men come forward in the same manner each having a fair ear of new Corn, which the priest takes from them and places with great solemnity in the fire where it is consumed - Four young warriors then enter the Square in the manner beforementioned, each having some of the new Cassina - A small part of it is given to the new fire by the priest, and the remainder is immediately parched and cooked for use - during these formalities, the priest is continually muttering some misterious Jargon which nobody understands, nor is it proper for any enquiries to be made on the Subject - the people in general believe that he is communicating with the great Master of breath
At this time the warriors and others being
assembled they proceed to drink the Black drink in their usual manner - Some of the new fire is next carried and left on the outside of the Square for Public use, and the women allowed to come and take it to their respective houses, which have the day before been cleaned and decorated with green boughs for its reception - All the old fire in the town being previously extinguished and the ashes swept clean away to make room for the new, During this day the women are allowed to dance with the children on the outside of the square, but by no means suffered to come into it - The men keep entirely by themselves and sleep in the Square. -
The Second day is devoted by the men to taking their war phisic - It is a strong decoction of the button Snake root or Senneca, which they use in such quantities as often to injure their health by producing Spasms &c. -
The third day is spent by the young men in hunting or fishing, while the elder ones remain in the Square and Sleep, or continue their black
drink war phisic &c. as they cho[inserted:o]se. During th[e] first three days of busking while the men are physicking, the women are constantly bathing—It is unlawful for any man to touch one of them even with the tip of his finger. And both Sexes abstain rigidly from all kind of food or sustenance and more particularly from Salt.—
On the fourth day, the whole town are assembled in the Square men women and children promiscuously, and devoted to com[inserted:men]surality— All the game killed the day before by the young hunters is given to the Public, large quantities of new-corn and other provisions are collected and cooked by the women over the new fire— The whole body of the square is occupied with pots and pans of cooked provision and they all partake in general festivity— The evening is spent in dancing or other trifling amusements and the ceremony is concluded.
N.B. All the provisions that remain are a perquisite to the old priest or fire maker. [illegible] [Alex.?] McGillivray
Ceremonies of Courtship and Marriageas practised by the Creek Indians

Courtship is always begun by proxy - The man if not intimately acquainted with the lady of his choice, sends her his talk (as it is termed) accompanied with small presents of clothing by some woman of her acquaintance — If the young woman takes his talk his proxy then asks the consent of her uncles and brothers, (the father having no voice or authority in the business) which being obtained, the young woman goes to him and they live together during pleasure or convenience—. This is the most common mode of Taking a wife and at present the most fashionable——
But if a man takes a wife comformably to the more antient and Serious custom of the Country, it requires a longer Courtship and some established formalities.— The man to signify his wishes kills a bear with his own hands, and sends a pan-full of the Oil to his mistress — If she receives the oil he next
attends and helps her hoe the corn in her field — afterwards plants her beans and when they come up he sets poles for them to run up on. In the mean time attends her corn until the beans have run up and entwined their vines about the poles— This is thought emblamatical of their approaching union and bondage[.] And they then take each other for better for worse and are bound to all intents and purposes.— A widow having been bound in the above manner is considered an adultress if she speaks or makes free with any man within four Summers after the death of her husband.—
With a couple united in the above manner the tie is considered more strongly binding than in the other case— being under this obligation to each other, the least freedom with any other person either in the man or woman is considered as adultry, and invariably punished by the relations of the offended party by whipping and cutting off the hair and ears close to the head— The ceremony of cropping as it is called is done in the following manner— The relations of the injured
party assemble, and use every stratagem to come at the Offender — This is called in the phrase of the Country raising the gang upon him—each of the Gang carries a stick nearly as large as a hoop pole, having caught the Offender they beat him or her as the case may be until senseless, and then operate with the knife— It is extremely difficult to evade this punishment but if the offender can keep clear of them by flight or otherwise, until they lay down their sticks, this law is satisfied and they (One family only excepted) have noright to take them up again— But the great and powerful Wind Family, of whom Mr. McGillivray is descended, if defeated in the first attempt, have the right of raising the gang and lifting the cudgels as often as they please until punishment is duly inflicted.— [flourish]
The opinion of the Creeks with respect to a Deity &c.

The Creeks believe in a good and bad spirit and in a future state of rewards and punishments
The Good Spirit they stile Hesakadum Esee
which signifies God or Master of Breath
The bad Spirit is stiled Slefulsasego which Signifies the Devil or rather Sorcerer
They believe that the good Spirit inhabits some distant unknown region, where game is plenty and goods very cheap where Corn grows all the year round and the Springs of pure water are never dried up
They believe also that the bad Spirit dwells a great ways off in some distant Swamp, which is full of galling bryars, and that he is commonly half starved having no game or bears oil in all his territories
They have an opinion that droughts, floods famines and their miscarriages in war, are produced by the agency of the bad Spirit - But of these things they all appear to have confused and irregular ideas and Some Sceptical opinions. -
Manner of burying the dead among theCreek Indians

When one of the family dies the relations bury the corps about four feet deep in a round hole dug directly under the cabbin or rack whereon he died_ the Corps is placed in the hole in a sitting posture with a blanket wrapt about it, and the legs bent under it and tied together; If a warrior he is painted and his pipe ornaments and warlike appendages are deposited with him - The Grave is then covered with canes tied to a hoop round the top of the whole and then a firm layer of clay sufficient to Support the weight of a man . — The relations howl loudly and morn publicly for four days - If the deceased has been a man of eminent character the family immediately removes from the house in which he is buried, and erect a new one, with a belief that where the bones of their dead are deposited the place is always attended by "Goblins and Chimeras dire"
They believe there is a state of future existence, and that according to the tenor of their lives, they shall
57. [=51]
hereafter be rewarded with the priviledge of hunting in the realms of the great Master of breath, or of becoming Seminolies in the regions of the old Sorcerer -
But as it is very difficult for them to draw any paralel between virtue and vice, they are most of them flattered with the expectation of hereafter becoming great war leaders - or swift hunters in the beloved country of the great Hesakadum Esee. -

Of the diseases and remedies of the Creeks

The Indians eat every green wild fruit they can lay hands on, which is said to contribute to the fevers that sometimes attack them in the latter part of Summer, and their children are often afflicted with worms from the same cause-
The Cassia Fistularicis or pod of the wild locust which grows here in abundance, furnishes them late in autumn with a kind of sweet meats which they gather and bring home wherever they can find it - And it is esteemed a good antidote in the complaints of their Children [flourish]
Their diseases are real and imaginary — in their complaints and disorders they sometimes employ male but more frequently female practitioners, whom they call very cunning men or women to attend them — And as all their disorders are to be cured by the herbs and supplies of the woods assisted by Majic, their mode of proceeding is not less singular than Superstitious— All physic and decoctions must undergo a process of boiling stirring or filtration, attended with blowing singing, hissing, muttering and a variety of mysterious and sublime operations before it is fitted for use— If the physician fails in the cure, he will ascribe it to cats or dogs that may be about the house, and they are either killed instantly or sent out of the neighbourhood. If after all the patient dies the chance is two to one that the doctor is considered as a witch or Sorcerer influenced by the Devil, and is pursued beaten and sometimes killed by the surviving relations, but if successful in restoring the patient to health he is paid almost his own price for his services in skins or cattle
Stitches in the Side or small -
rheumatic pains which are frequent with them, are often considered as the effect of some majic wound. They firmly believe that their Indian enemies have the power of shooting them as they lay asleep at the distance of 500 miles — They often complain of having been shot by a Choctaw or Chicasaw from the midst of those Nations, and send or go directly to the most cunning and eminent doctors for relief—; The cunning woman tells Themthat what they have apprehended is verily true and proceeds to examine and make the cure; In these cases scratching or cupping is the remedy or (as is often done) sucking the affected part with her mouth, produces to their view some fragment of a bullet or piece of a wad, which she had purposely concealed in her mouth to confirm the truth of what she had asserted- After this a few majic draughts of their physic must be administered and the patient is made whole
Gonnorrheas are common among them but not virulent - contrary to what has been believed their cures are undoubtedly imperfect and not to be depended upon:
It is an established rule that pregnant
women be entirely alone at the time of delivery, and this rule is rigidly adhered to_ Nature Seems to have fortified them with strength to undergo the operation with out assistance— On the 12th of December 1790, four women came from the white ground 10 miles from Little Tallassie, to sell horse ropes to the beloved man, the day was cold and raining with a sleet of Snow, they stayed all night, about midnight one of them a young woman was taken in travail, her mother was with her and immediately orderd her to take some fire [inserted:and go into a Swamp] about thirty rods from the outhouse where they slept. [space] She went alone was delivered of her child and at 10 oClock next morning being bare footed and half naked, took the infant on her back and returned home thro' the rain and snow which still continued to fall without he least apparent inconvenience.—
This circumstance had I not been present and seen the woman with the infant on her back, I might have been doubtful of its possibility
In their periodical habits the women are
equally tenacious of being Seen or Touched, and never leave their hiding places during the continuance of them . - ---

Of the Habits Manners and Customs of the Creeks

They have an opinion that to Sleep with women enervates and renders them unfit for warriors, men therefore but seldom have their wives in the apartments where they lodge, every family has two huts or Cabbins. One is the mans and the other belongs to his wife, where she Stays and does her work, Seldom or ever coming into the man's house unless to bring him victuals or on other errands - . -
The women perform all the labour both in the house and field, and are in fact but Slaves to the men being subject to their commands without any will of their own except in the management of their Children
They are universally called wenches and the only distinction between them and the negro women is
That they have Indian Children, and when a man would have you understand that he is speaking of himself he designates her as his sons mother &c. yet even in this unhappy Servile State the women are remarkable for their care and attention to the men, constantly watching over them in their desperate drunkeness & quarrels with the utmost Solicitude and anxiety. -
Beauty is of no estimation in either Sex. - It is Strength and agility that recommends a young man to his mistress, and to be a skillfull or [?] hunter, is the highest merit with the woman he may choose for a wife, he proves his merit and abilities to her as often as he can by presenting her or her guardian uncles & aunts, with bears oil and venison of his own killing -
Simple fornication is no crime or reproach amongst the Creeks, the Sexes indulge their propensities with each other promiscously unrestrained by Law or Custom and without Secrecy or Shame - If a young woman becomes pregnant before she is married which most of them do, the child is maintained in her clan without the least murmuring -
If a young woman becomes pregnant by a fellow whom she had expected to Marry and is disapointed, she in revenge is authorised by a custom of the Country to destroy the infant at the birth if she pleases, which is often done by leaving it to perish in the Swamp where it was born, or throwing it into the water and indeed to destroy a new born infant is not uncommon in families that are grown so numerous, as to be supported with difficulty - it is done by mutual consent of The Clan and parents and without remorse -
The refined passion of love is unknown to any of them, altho they apply the word love to rum and every thing else they wish to be possessed of - The very frequent Suicides committed in consequence of the most trifling disappointment or quarrel between Men and women, are not the result of grief, but of Savage and unbounded revenge -
Marriage is considered only as a temporary convenience, not binding on the parties more
than one year - If a seperation is desired by either the man or his wife, it is commonly consented to and takes place without ceremony, but he or she is not at liberty to take any other person as wife or husband until after the celebration of the ensuing busk; at which if they attend and partake of the physic and bathing, they are at once [unconcealed?] from the marriage contract and at libery to choose again - But to be only intimate with any other person between the time of seperation and the ceremony of the next busk, is deemed as adultry and would mean the penalty of whipping and cropping as the custom of the country requires; This punishment however depends Sometimes on the Superior Strength of the Clan to which the injured party belongs
The married women are termed bound wenches the single girls free wenches, the least freedom with a bound wench is considered criminal and invariably punished or attempted to be punished by the cropping law
A plurality of wives is allowed of, a mother and her two daughters are often kept by one man
at the Same time, but this is most frequently by white traders who are better able to Support them; A large portion of the old men and middle aged men be frequently changing have had many different wives and their children Scattered around the Country are unknown to them.
Few women have more than two children by the same father, hence they have found the necessity of conferring the honours of Chiefs and micos on the issue of the female line, for it would be impossible to trace the right by the male issue . -
The custom of frequently throwing away their old wives and taking new ones, is well adapted to their barbarous mode of life - The total want of that [conjucal?] affection which dignifies families in civilized Societys, perhaps arises from the little pleasure that can be experienced in the arms of women continually harassed by hard labour and dirty drudgery, therefore this inconstancy is favourable to their population; without it they could scarcely keep up their numbers, and even with
it, they encrease very slowly
By a confused intermixture of blood a whole tribe becomes uncles, aunts brother, Sisters and cousins to each other - And as some members of each clan commonly wander abroad and intermarry in distant clans, and others from those towns come in and Supply their peace &c The whole body of The people have become connected by the ties of blood and hospitality - And are really but one great family of relations whose Cermonies [?] and habits are nearly alike, Tho their language differs considerably -
The father has no care of his own child - the invariable custom is for the women to keep and rear all the children, having the entire control over them until they are able to provide for themselves - They appear to have a sufficient natural affection for them, they never strike or whip a child for its faults, their mode of correction is singular - If a child requires punishment, the mother Scratches its legs and thighs with the point of a pin or needle untill it bleeds - Some keep the jaw-bone of a garfish having two Sharp teeth, entirely for the purpose -
They say that this punishment has several good effects, that it not only deters the child from mischief, but it loosens the Kin and gives a pliancy to the limbs, and the profusion of blood that follows the operation serves to convince the child, that the loss of it is not attended with danger or the loss of life; that when he becomes a man and a warrior, he need not Shrink from an enemy or apprehend that the wounds he may receive and loss of blood will endanger his life -
Scratching is also practised among young warriors as a ceremony or token of friendship when they have exchanged promises of inviolable attachment, they proceed to scratch each other before they part This is more frequently done in drunken frolics than at any other time; After a rum drinking numbers of them appear covered with blood and lacerated from Their shoulders down to their heels - Such marks of friendship are indelible, and effectually remind them of their friendly promises as long as they live
The Common food of the Creeks is
Indian corn pounded and boiled with which they mix a small quantity of strong tees of the ashes of hickery wood It is boiled until the corn is tender and the liquor become as thick as rich soup, the lees give it a tart taste, and preserves it from souring by the heat of the climate - From day to day they have it constantly standing in large pots or pans with a spoon in it ready for use; It is called by the Indians Oafka and by the whites Thin drink, those who have been long used to it are excessively fond of it - The Indians who eat not much of any other food, go to it and eat of it about once an hour all day -
They are without System or rule in any thing, they have no regular Meals, Thoughtless negligent and wasteful, they sometimes have abundance and at other times nothing at all to eat - But in all their viscissitudes they betray no appearance of feeling distress - They are so extremely indolent, that from the time they have consumed the meats killed in the winter, until the repairing of the new corn, they are all straitened, and many of them much distressed for food - And Suffer under an annual famine of about two months every year -

Of the Persons and figures of the Creek Indians

The men in general are of a good Size stout athletic and handsome. the women are also of a good heigth but coarse thick necked and ugly, Being condemned by the custom of the Country to pound corn, carry burdens, and perform all the hard labour; they are universally masculine in appearance without one Soft blandishment to render them desirable or lovely - Both Sexes have a phlegmatic coldness and indifference uncommon and unknown to most white people, When a man meets his wife and children after an absence of some months in which time she has not heard a word from him, it is with a perfect seeming indifference - perhaps the first word spoken will be - So you have got back again I see - He answers yes. She may then reply Momuscha i.e. Very well. and there ends the conversation - The man reserves the tale of his adventures to be told to his other friends over a cup of black drink, the next morning at the Square, and there it is related in a tedious circumlocatory conversation of many hours -
All the children in the Country up to the age of 12 or 14 years (to Judge from appearance) go stark naked in Summer and winter - And the women in general wear no clothes in Summer except one single simple short petticoat of blue stroud tied round the waist and reaching only to the upper part or the knees And in winter they have only the addition of a blanket if they can get one[?] thrown over their shoulders. -
A stranger going into the Country must feel distressed, when he sees naked women bringing in huge burdens of wood on their backs, or bent under the scorching Sun at hard labour in the field, while the indolent robust young men are riding about, or stretched at ease on some scaffold amusing themselves with a pipe or a whistle
The Indians are credulous enveloped in dark ignorance, and shut out from all communion with the the enlightened world, the few of them that have a desire for knowledge are deprived of the means of obtaining it .- They are naturally fickle inconstant and excessively jealous of the encroachments of
the white people, they easily become the dupes of the traders that live in the towns, who have established so complete an ascendency over them, that whatever they tell them is implicitly believed until contradicted by some more artful story, thus situated it is in the the power of an ignorant vagabond trader at any time over a cup of black drink, to persuade them that the most solemn treaty is no more than a well covered plot, laid to deprive them of their lands under the specious pretences of friendship and presents; and that the Sooner they break it the better; this arouses their Jealousy which with their insatiable thirst for plunder will probably so long as the white villains are among them, continually destroy the good effects intended by treaties
For near forty years past the Creek Indians have had little intercourse with any other foreigners but those of the English nation, Their prejudices in favour of English men and English goods have been carefully kept alive by tories and others to this day - Most of their towns have now in their possession british drums
with the Arms of the Nation and other emblems painted on them, and some of their squares have the rhemnants of old British flags yet preserved in them; they still believe that the "great King over the water" is able to keep the whole world in Subjection. -
About three years ago a Mr Bowles of the Bahamas formerly a Lieut. in the Pennsylvania Loyalists (aided and abetted as is said by Lord Dunmore in order to disturb the trade of the Country, of which he had been disappointed by the superior address of Panton Leslie & Coy) availing himself of the prejudices of the Indians, landed in East Florida with several Old cannon taken from the wrecks on the Flrorida Keyes, and some ammunition; assumed the title of Brigadier General and with three Captains of his own promoting viz_Robins, Wellbanks & Dalton and 37 whites and mullattoes which they procured out of Providence Jail, he proceeded to the lower Creeks, gave out word that he was immediately from London that an English Army of 20.000 men were on the point of landing, and were come to Join the Creeks
the war against the States - The Indians and traders believed every word of it! even the sagacious Chief himself was for sometime duped by this impostor -
Mr. Bowles remained several months among the Indians, and after having run himself in debt to many of the traders from 2 to 3000 chalks each, he was ordered by Mr. McGillivray to quit the Country, Captain Dalton, to save his life, fled in disguise to Pensacola where he obtained a passage to Ireland, Capt. Wellbanks fled to the Cherokees and remains there, And Captain Robins a Carpenter by trade was detained in the Nation as a useful artificer, and was employed by M.Gillivray to build him a house; after working near three years he left it unfinished and in November last, stole two horses and a negro wench from McGillivray with which he run away -
When Mr. Bowles left the Country he persuaded Several Indians and half breed of no note to follow him, they stole a vessel in Mobile bay and went over to the Bahamas, where Bowles selected five of the handsomest of his followers viz. 3 Cherokees
and 2 creeks, and Sold the others to the wreckers - with these five he went to Nova Scotia and from thence to London.—
Arriving in London at the time of the expected Spanish war, he represented that 20.000 indian warriors (of whom those with him were the principals) were zealous to drive the Spaniards all out of Mexico, and had sent to request the aid of their old English friends — In consequence of which they were much caressed at Court._!!! .—

Method of Counting time
The new-year commences with the Creeks immediately after the celebration of the busk at the ripening of the new corn in August, they divide The year into two Seasons only - to wit, winter & Summer, and Subdivide it by the successive Moons beginning the Winter with the moon of August called Heyothlucco or the big ripening Moon
September .. Otauwooskochee „ little Chesnut Moon
October „ Otauwooskolucco „ big Chesnut Moon
November „ Heewoolee „ falling leaf Moon
December called Thlassolucco big winter Moon
January, " Thlassochosee little Winter Moon and[?] big winter Moons young brother . -

February Hoolahlahassee The windy Moon
March Tausautchoosee little Spring Moon
April Tausautcheelucco big Spring Moon
May Keehassee Mulberry Moon
June Kochohassee Blackberry Moon
July Hoyeuchee little ripening Moon
They count the number of days of years either past or to come by ten, having no exact method of keeping or reckoning their time, they can seldom tell nearer than within one month of the time, any remarkable occurrence took place in the preceding year, but circumstances or any speeches that might have attended such occurrences, they remember accurately - there is not one in the whole nation knows how old he is. -
They know when the winter or hunting season approaches by a change of the face of nature, and they also know when the Summer or planting Season advances, by the [increasing?]
heat and vegetation, and take a little pains to inform Themselves further on the subject. -
The Summer season with the men is devoted to War, or their domestic amusements of riding, horse hunting, ballplays and dancing, and by the women to their customary hard labour_._

Of their Public Amusements
Their various dances are indescribable, they are always designated by the name of the Animal which they exhibit in them viz_ The fish dance is led down by the most expert woman, a man having a wooden fish in his hand_
The snake dance is performed in the same manner, The Buffaloe dance is distinguished by the most violent exertion of the feet legs and shoulders, But the most favourite dance in the Country is the Eagle feather dance, which is conducted with a detree of moderation_._
In general their dances are performed with the most violent contortions of the limbs, and an exceptional exertion of the muscular powers
They have sometimes most farcical dramatic representations, which terminate in the grossest obscenity -
71. 71 office [undecipherable]
Their ball plays are manly and require astonishing exaction, but white men have been found to excel the best of them at that exercise, they therefore seldom or ever admit a white man into the ball ground_ Legs and arms have often been broken in their ball plays, but no resentment follows an accident of this kind.
The women and men both attend them [overwritten:in] large numbers as a kind of Gala, and bets often run as high as a good horse or an equivalent in kind _._

First intercourse of the Creeks with the White people
Soon after the Settlement of So Carolina an intercourse and trade took place from Fort Moor in That province between the white people and the lower Creeks, which appears to have been the first communication they had with British subjects - before this they traded altogether with the French of Louisiana, and the
people of Pensacola and St Marks - The upper Creeks continued to send all their Skins to the French of Mobile, for many years after the trade of the lower Creeks had been drawn into South Carolina -
In 1732 when the Colony of Georgia was founded by General Oglethorpe, he called eight tribes of the lower Creeks to a treaty in Savannah _ He states the number of warriors in those tribes then, to be 1300. By the kind treatment and good management of General Oglethorpe, they soon became strongly attached to the British interest.
“The french of Lousiana jealous of this step, immediately sent troops and agents among the upper Creeks and erected a fort at little Tallassie of 14 Guns; by establishing a post amongstin the midst of them, they found means to attach them to the french people, the choctaws being before in their interest, as well as the Chickasaws and lower Cherokees_._ In 1739. General Oglethorpe called his allies the lower Creeks to a conference at the Cowetas, and attended in person, renewed the former treaty's and confirmed them in their attachment to the British Government_ At this conference deputies attended from the Oakfuski[es]
choctaws, chickasaws and lower Cherokees - The Cherokees and [overwritten:Creeks], afterwards joined the British in an expidition against the Spaniards at St augustine in the year 1742_.” Vide Doct. Harrisons collect. Voyages travels and Settlements 2 Vol. fo. Londo[n] 1764._._
It appears that from the year 1732 the upper and lower Creeks were divided between the French and English until the peace of 1763, when the Floridas were ceded to the English, and the French Fort "Alabamas" at little Tallassie was then abandoned by them; The British kept up a Captains command at this fort for some years after the peace of 1763., but at that time possessing all the country eastward and southward to which the Indians were obliged to come to trade_ The British withdrew their troops and sent numbers of agents and commissaries among them_ by which they effectually attached them to the "great King over the water"_ By pursuing the same policy with the Choctaws, chickasaws and Cherokees, they monopolized all the trade of these four great Nations, until the American revolution._ And indeed during the late [undecipherable] and ever since the peace of 1783, the trade is [undecipherable]
beneficial only to British Subjects -
Their strong prejudices in favour of the English nation, and of every thing they see that has been manufactured in it, and of every person connected with it, are carefully kept alive by tories and renegadoes of every sort who are constantly among them, and their hatred of the Spaniards is equally evident and implacable -

The present mode of Government of the Creek Nation

The Government if it may be termed one, is a kind of military democracy_ At present the Nation has a Chief whose title is Steulsacco Choota or the Great beloved Man__ He is eminent with the people only for his superior talents and political abilities - every individual has so high an opinion of his own importance and independency, that it would be difficult if not impossible, to impress on the community at large the necessity of any Social compact that should be binding upon it, longer than common danger threatened them with the loss of their lands [undecipherable] hunting lands. —
Each town has its chief or Mico, and some experienced war leaders_ It has also what they stile beloved second man, whose business is to regulate the police of the town and public buildings, they are generally men of the best memories, that can tell long stories and give minute details of antient customs.—
The Micos and Councellors and Orators, and until very lately had a Control over the warriors and leaders, whose business was to conduct the scouts and war parties - —
The Micos were formerly styled the Kings or beloved Men of the white towns_ which were as they say, once considered as places of refuge and safety to prisone[rs] who could escape death or torture, by flight, and find an asylum in these sacred places_._
Other towns were called war or red towns, and differed from the white towns of the Micos, by being governed entirely by Warriors.—
This is said to have been their former Government but is now done away———
In conformity to the modern Government
The chiefs and principal Warriors have annual meetings to deliberate on public affairs _ the time is fixed by a chief, and the space between the time of warning and that of assembling, is called the broken days_ They assemble in the Public square of some central town drink the black drink [overwritten:and] exchange tobacco, and the chiefs and Orators afterwards proceed to give or receive advice with profound gravity and moderation - - —
The influence of the Great beloved Man on all occasions, is the priviledge of advising and not in the power of Commanding - Every individual is at liberty to choose whether or not he will engage in any warlike enterprize, But the rage of young men to acquire war names, and the thirst of plunder in the elder ones and leaders, are motives sufficient to raise gangs of Volunteers to go in quest of hair and horses, at any Time when they are disengaged from hunting - It is little matter to them what the pretence of going to war may be, they think that force constitutes right and victory is an infallible proof of Justice on their Side - and they
attach as boldly, as they are indefatigable in [seizing?] a Scalp or to obtain plunder.
Young men remain in a kind of disgrace and are obliged to light pipes bring wood and help to cook Black drink for the warriors, and perform all the menial Services forOf the public square, until they shall have performed some warlike Exploit that may procure them a war name and a seat in the square at the Black drink; this stimulates them to push abroad and at all hazards obtain a scalp, or as they term it bring in hair _ When the young warrior after a Successful expedition approaches the town he belongs to, he announces his arrival by the War hoop which can be heard a mile or more, and his friends go out to meet him; The scalp he has taken is then suspended on the end of a red painted wand, and amidst the yelling multitude accompanied with the war Song is brought in triumph my him into the centre of the town or Square, [overwritten text:]Where it is either deposited, or cut up and divided among his friends, who then dub him a man and a warrior -
worthy of a war name and a seat at the ceremony of the Black drink, which he receives accordingly -
Those who have seldom been abroad and are not distinguished by war names, are stiled old women, which is the greatest term of reproach that can be used to them - They have also one other common term of reproach viz. Este Dogo - i.e. you are nobody_ This is a very offensive expression, and cautiously to be used[,] to say you are a liar is a common and harmless reply, but to use either of the other two expressions would bring on a quarrel at once. -
The complete equipment of a war party is, simply to each man a Gun and ammunition, a knife, a small bag of gritz or pounded corn, and two or three horse ropes or halters_ These parties [overwritten text:]are Commonly but small, never more than 40, 50 and 60 go out together, as may be seen by their war camps, frequently to be found in the woods, which are so constructed that the exact number of men in the party can at once be ascertained._
They make a point of taking boys and girls prisoners, whom they carefully preserve to
Supply the places of such of their people as [undecipherable; may die?] or may be killed from among them, But they Save grown men and women as prisoners, only, when avarice takes precedence of barbarity, and they set the price of ransom upon them. According to the rank and estimation in which they may be held among their country men._
When prisoners of the latter description [blot: are?] brought into any of their towns, the Indian [blot] [wo]men by paying a small premium of Tobacco to the victorious warriors, are permitted to have the honour of whipping them as they pass along. This is often practised to the pain and ridicule of the unfortunate victim of their sport and barbarity -
It is asserted that in most cases if the Indians are warmly attacked by their Enemy, and can once be dislodged from their several trees, that they will content themselves with one scalp, which they divide among the whole, then scatter and make the best speed home, toward their several towns, to tell their friends of the affair_ the
are much giv[overwritten text:]en to lying and exageration on these occasions. -
Their ruling passion seems to be war, and their mode of conducting it, constitutes some part of their General Government; And next they are devoted to hunting -
The present great beloved man who left Georgia in disguise about the year 1776., and attached himself to the upper Creeks where he was born, by the advice of his father immediately set about placing himself at the head of the nation - His kindred and family connexion in the Country, and his evident abilities soon gave him such influence among them, that the British made him their commissary with the rank and pay of Lieu.-Colonel, under Colonel_ Brown then Superintendant
After the English had abandoned the nation in the year 1782_ this beloved man found it necessary in order to carry on the war with Success against the Georgians, to undertake a reform of the police of the Nation, which had for a long
time been divided by faction -
He effected a revolution in one of their [most?] antient customs, by placing the warriors in all cases over the Micos or Kings - who tho not active as warriors, were always considered as important councellors - The Micos resisted this measure for some time, and the struggle became at last so serious, that the beloved Chief had one Sullivan and two others partizans of the [blot; undecipherable] put to death in the Public Squares_ they went[?] [blot; undecipherable] white men, who have undertaken to lead the [fa]ction against [overwritten text:]Him, but he finally crushed the insurgents and effected his purposes. . -
The Spirit of opposition still remained again against him in the old Tallassie king (Opieth Mico) who with his clan pronounced McGillivray a boy and an usurper; taking steps that must be derogatory to his family and consequence, and under these circumstances he undertook to treat Seperately with the Gerogians
The consequences were his houses were burned in his absince, and his corn and cattle destroyed - Notice [undecipherable] Refractory[?] for [undecipherable]
some of the most important of the lower towns, until finding the Georgians aimed at them indiscriminately, and a Mr Alexander had killed 12 of their real friends (the Cussitahs), they dropped their internal disputes, and united all their efforts under the great Chief against the frontiers.—
There is but one institution in the Nation that resembles civilization, it was introduced by McGillivray and altho sometimes observed, is oftener dispensed with._ If an indian steals a horse he is liable by this law to return him, or another of equal value and pay a fine of 30 chalks or 15 dollars; if he is unable to do so, he is may be tied and whipped by the injured party 30 lashes_ But as in other cases, the infliction of punishment depends at last on the superior force of the injured clan._
When the inhabitants of any particular town are notorious for horse stealing or have acted otherwise unadvisedly _ The chief has the entire power of punishing them collectively, by removing the white man from amongst them and depriving them of trade -
this at once humbles them most effectually, for they conceive the priviedge of having a good white trader in their town to be inestimable. -
Scarcely a day passes but complaints or accusations of some kind or other are laid before Mr McGillivray by some indian or white trader_ His uniform method of proceeding is cautiously to hear the evidences of the parties and never to decide on the case; By putting off the trial from one time to another, the parties at length forget their resentments, and often compromise the quarrel between themselves_ It is good policy in the chief not to give decisions in the disputes of [overwritten text:]his people, for all his systems would not defend him against the effects of the resentment of the party, against whom he might in Justice be obliged to give an opinion
Some young men of his relations and several active warriors being about Little Tallassie, whom the chief keeps continually attached to him by frequent and profuse presents, Serve him as a kind of Watch, and often in the capacity of Constables pursue take up
and punish such characters as he may direct, and on some occasions have acted as executioners —
It is a maxim of his policy to give protection to outlaws, Debtors, thieves and murderers from all parts of the country, who have fled in great numbers from the hand of justice, and found an asylum in the Creek nation.
The whites living among the Indians (with very few exceptions) are the most abandoned wretches that can be found perhaps on this side of Botany Bay[,] there is scarcely a crime but some of them has been guilty, Most of the traders and all their hirelings and pack horsemen are of the above description._
All the traders have licenses and particular towns allotted to them respectively, with the liberty of selling their places to such purchasers as shall be approved of by Mr McGillivray, or of exchanging them with each other - but the Indians dont suffer them to cultivate much land, upon the Supposition that if the traders raise produce themselves, they will not purchase the little they have to sell.— [flourish]

State of the Agriculture Of the Creek Indians_

The lands of the Country is a common Stock and any individual May remove from one part of it to another, and occupy vacant ground where he can find it_
The country is naturally divided into three districts viz - The upper Creeks_ lower or Middle Creeks _ and Seminolies _ These are subdivided and taken[?] up by different tribes, settled on the several water courses_
The upper district includes all the waters of the Tallapoosee, Coosahatchee, and Alabama rivers, and is called the [Albacoes?].—
The lower or middle district includes all the waters of the Chattahoosee and Flint rivers down to their Junction, and altho occupied by a great number of different tribes, the whole are called Cowetaulgas or Coweta people, from the Coweta town and tribe, the most warlike and antient of any in the whole Nation
The lower or southern district takes in
the river Appalachiacola, and extends to the point of East Florida, and is called the country of the Seminolies _._
Agriculture [overwritten text:]Is as far advanced with the Indians, as it can well be without the proper implements of husbandry_
A very large majority of the Nation being devoted to hunting in the Winter Season, and in war or idleness in Summer, cultivate but Small parcels of ground, barely sufficient to raise corn enough to subsist upon, and therefore remain in a state of poverty and Starvation from one year to another. But many individuals (particularly on Flint river among the Chehaws who possess numbers of negroes) have fenced fields tollerably well cultivated, having no plows they break up the ground with hoes and Scatter the Seed promiscously over the ground in hills but not in Rows ___
When the Corn is nearly ripe the women go through the fields, and turn all the ears downwards,
this method by twisting and bruising the Stem facilitates its ripening, and prevents vermin from destroying it_ When it is sufficiently dry they strip the husks from the ears as they hang on the Stalk gather in the corn and lay it up for use_._
They raise abundance of Sweet potatoes, pea nuts, beans, pumpkins, water melons - and some of them raise cabbages called Collards, and turnips_ The wild leek being transplanted into their little fields and patches, grows to good size, many of them cultivate it and use it in their Soups._
Peach trees the only fruit trees they have grow well in the Country and serve them as shades to their huts, in Summer but they destroy all the fruit long before it comes to perfection._
They have a mean breed of horses called Tackeys of a diminutive size, but very hardy, these are the best kind of horses for packing and heavy burdens - They have plenty of cattle but like the whites On their borders, never milk their cows - There is an
abundance of common fowls in the country but no tame geese or turkeys_._
They have a few hogs, some of them so domesticated as to follow the families like dogs_ some hundreds of miles through the woods, and remain with them during the hunting season._
They appear to have learned the custom of raising horses, cattle[,] fowls and hogs, either from Negros or white traders, who commonly possess larger stocks than the whole town besides in which they live_ And they might learn from traders to improve in gardening and agriculture, but they will not suffer a white among them to plant._ [flourish]

State of Arts & Manufactures with the Creek Indians
The Creeks are poor proud and self conceited, they would ridicule and laugh at
the man who should advise them to build better houses than they have at present, or alter their long established customs and habits of living.—
When the British had possession of their country they were allowed in order to aid them as hunters, a Gun smith in the Coweta district_ one at the Oakfuskies _ and one near little Tallassie_ each on a salary from Government of £25 per annum, [undecipherable] direction of the Superintendant and Commiss[ioner]s_ their Armourers remained in the Country and worked for them many years_ Although the Indians are well convinced of the utility of a blacksmith among them, it does not appear that one of them ever attempted to learn the art, notwithstanding necessity and example are constantly before their eyes_._
If game should become scarce in their country, and a sadler, blacksmith, miller and potter (The most useful artizans that could be placed there) were established and protected in the Nation, some of the
Indians might possibly be persuaded into imitation, and turned from hunting to agriculture and the pursuit of Mechanic arts; but there is reason to conjecture that a majority of them, will never forsake their delightful, and as they think, profitable amusement of hunting and war, so long as wilds and woods remain for them to range in between the Mississippi & western Ocean
Willm Walker McGillivrays overseer is a blacksmith, he had procured a small anvill which in that country might be estimated as almost worth its weight in gold_ An Indian chief demanded of Walker that he should mend his Gun without receiving pay for it, alledging that he and his children lived upon the milk of the beloved mans cows, and were indulged to settle in the country without trading, which was pay enough and more too_ Walker still refused to mend the Gun without such compensation as had been made to him in common for his work, upon with the Chief took a sledge hammer and dashed the Anvil to pieces._
By this blow the Chief deprived himself of Subsistence, and distressed nearly a third part of the Nation . - The Indians have as little consideration as gratitude - . -
The following are the only articles of their own manufacturing now used in the nation, which except the smoking pipes are made altogether by the women, and executed with tolerable neatness [Viz?]
Earthen Pots and Pans of various sizes [undecipherable: from one] pint up to six Gallons, but in these they betray a great want of taste and invention, they have no variety of fashion - These vessels are all without handles and are drawn so nearly to a point at the bottom, that they will not stand alone; therefore whenever they are set for use they are to be propped up on three sides with sticks or stones
The method of fabrication is by rolling the clay between the hands, and placing these rolls one upon the other circularly, cementing them at the same time until the vessel nearly resembles a neat coil of small ropes it is then pressed inside and out, "until it has [undecipherable]
shape, the surfaces are next smoothed - it is then dryed in the shade, burned over a blazing fire, scraped and becomes fit for use. -
Baskets for gathering and Fanners for cleaning corn, and other uses, are made of Cane Splinters of various sizes but all of one Shape, the workmanship of these is neat and well executed, except that they have neither covers nor handles . - .
Horse Ropes or halters are commonly made of twisted bark, but they have a superior kind made of Silkgrass, a species peculiar to the Country, which after being dryed resembles coarse flax . -
Smoked Leather universally used among them for mockassins, stocking boots, and often for Shirts - and it is draped with the brains of the deer, with which the Skin is first impregnated, and afterwards confined from the air, is softened and finished by the smoke of rotten wood -
Black Marble pipes are made with great patience and labour by one person only throughout the whole Nation, he lives at the Natchez, and being the only man that knows where the stone can be
found, monopolizes the business entirely and [sells?] his common pipes at half the price of a blanket. -
Wooden Spoons very large, simple in their form one serves a whole family who use it round by turns -

Oil Oyl of which all the natives are excessively fond, is extracted by them in small quantities from acorns Hickory nuts and chesnuts, by a dirty process of pounding and baking it in their pans - The acorn [undecipherable] a beautiful deep orange colour, being soft and [undecipherable] is esteemed by them to be the richest and best . -
The houses they occupy are but pitiful small huts commonly from 12 to 15 or 20 feet long - and from 1- to 15 feet wide, the floors are of earth the walls 6, 7 & 8 feet high supported by poles driven into the ground and lathed across with canes tied slightly on, and fitted in with clay, which they always dig for and find near the Spot whereon they build; the roofs are pitched from a ridge pole over the centre, which is covered with large tufts of the bark of trees - The roofs are covered with 4 or 5 layers of rough shingles laid upon rafters of round [poles?]
the whole secured on the outside from being blown away by long heavy poles laid across them, and tied with bark or withes at each end of the house. In putting on these curious roofs, they seem to observe an uniformity, in all their different towns, which upon the approach of a stranger exhibits a grotesque appearance of rudeness, not so easily to be described with the pen as it might be with the pencil.— The chimnies are made of poles and clay and are built up at one end and on the outside of the houses—On each side of the fireplace they have small cane racks or platforms, with skins, whereon they sleep, but many of them—too lazy to make these platforms[—]sleep on the floor in the midst of much dirt.—
They have but one door at the side and near the centre of the house, this although nothing remains inside to be stolen, is barracadoed by large heavy pieces of Wood, whenever they quit the house to go out a hunting—.—
Their houses being but slightly made seldom resist the weather, more than one or two years,
before they fall to pieces, they then erect new ones on new spots of ground, thus by continually shifting from one stand to another, the bulk of some of their largest towns are removed three or four miles from where they stood a few years before, and no vestiges remain of their former habitations.— [pen flourish]

Political relative Situation of [obscured:the] Creek Indians to their Neig[hbors]
Their country is so valuable that it may not be unworthy of some particular attention from the United States - There are no advantages to be derived from the present state of the Country without its trade - But if any event should place the Floridas again in the hands of the British, The Indians would suffer them immediately to establish posts throughout the country, and the Oconee river would become a british instead of an Indian frontier. -
The Spaniards are much in favor
of the Creeks - they give annually some presents to be distributed at the will of the Chief, and to gain his and their affections, but the effect is not produced with either— The Doceur was received from Don Arthur O'Neal the Governor of Pensacola in October 1790. This gift was more considerable than in any year before— It consisted of 50 pieces of Strouds and equivalents of other [goods?], according to the rule of assortment hereafter [mentioned?].—
A majority of the Southern frontier people are as much in a state of hunting as the Creeks are, and their mode of life in all respects very much resembles that of the Indians, they fight with rifles and knives, and always Scalp their dead enemies— they covet the back lands more for the game and fresh cane breaks for the cattle to range in, than for any thing else
The Choctaws and Creeks have a fixed enmity against each other, the Creeks are taught to hate and despise the Choctaws from their infancy;
upwards; they call their hogs Choctaws by way of derision, and the comparison, by them is though very apt and witty— But from many experiments they well know the Choctaws to be superior to themselves in war— They acknowledge that in their former Way, if the Choctaws had had as able War leaders as they the creeks, had, the latter must have been subdued and extirpated — there is little or no [undecipherable:intercourse? be]tween the two Nations—The Choctaws [undecipherable] fully under the influence of Benjamin Jeams [i.e. James] a trader in the upper district of their Country, and of Alexander Frazier another principal trader in the lower district near Tombigbee river.—
The Chickasaws have a trifling intercourse with the Creeks—they purchase cattle from the Creeks and Sometimes sell them horses—there is a great Jealousy between the two Nations that might be easily blown up into open War—The Chickasaws are under the advice of a Mr McDonald a principal trader in
their country—
The Cherokees have placed their faith in the Creeks, and are in strict friendship and alliance with them, All the public papers & talks that have been given to the Cherokees, were carried directly to McGillivray and are now in his possession
The chiefs and several of the Kings of the two [obscured:Nations], have by courtesy exchanged War Names in the Public Squares, which constitutes a mutual obligation to help and protect each other—
The Chicamague Cherokees are under the Little Turkey King who has a writer, and communicates often with McGillivray— he sent one of his head men immediately to McGillivray on his return from Congress, to know what had been done, and what he might expect if he was to offer to treat—getting no answer to this letter he wrote again, in which he discovered much anxiety, and concluded his letter by observing that if he got no advice from him
before the Spring he should then take Six of his leading and head men, and Set off for the white town to See the Congress, and request that they would treat with him and his people, as they had done with the creeks.— To this letter McGillivray wrote him an answer but I could not See it— The chicamagues have for their trader John Rogers who is married and has lived with them many years—he is a white man bred up in the Creek Nation, and speaks the Creek language perfectly -

Remarks on the present State of the trade with the Southern Indians
Nearly the whole trade of the Creeks, Cheeokees Chickasaws and Choctaws is centered in the house of Panton Leslie & Company. Their principal Magazine is at Pensacola, where their ships arrive annually with Supplies in the fall of the year, Just before the Indian hunting
season commences— Branches of this house are extended to St Marks, under the direction of a Mr. Forester for the convenience of the lower Creeks and Some of the Western Seminolies—to St. Augustine under Mr. Leslie, and to St. Johns and the head of StMarys river, under Mr. Hamilton— James Allen & others for the convenience of the Cheehaws and lower Seminolies— And to Mobile and Tombigbee rivers under Mr. McPherson and others for the use of the Chickasaws and Choctaws—While the upper Creeks and Cherokees are altogether supplied by Panlon [i.e., Panton], who resides at Pensacola— This extensive house is connected with Forbes & Company in New Providence for the convenience of bills &c. and their correspondent in Philadelphia .............. on ........... Wharf
Mr. McGillivray appears to be an acting partner in the concern, residing in the centre of the country he has the sole management of all the petty traders in the several towns of his nation, who are licensed by him and liable to be removed [undecipherable]
at his pleasure—his influence is extended also to the traders of the Cherokees—
The traders are poor and the Chief has established So complete an authority over them, that his word is Law to them, he directs them to make Sale of their skins to the Pensacola house, and as they are much in fear of him his orders are always obeyed—.—
Traders in the Indian towns frequently employ trusty Indians and intelligent half breeds as their factors, to ride around the Country and procure them all the Skins they can— by this means they frequently interfere with each others' interests, and are constantly embroiled in quarrels—
The Indians are always trusted by the traders, (who are likewise commonly trusted by the merchants) for as much clothing and ammunition as will fit them off for hunting— On their return home they are are [sic] generally punctual in their payments, or as they term it killing their debts, but it is more from necessity
necessity than inclination, for they know they can never be trusted more than once, and of consequence must Suffer the next year—thus both Indians & traders are kept dependant on the trade, to ensure good behaviour—.—
The following is the rule by which a trader makes up an assortment of Indian Goods— The proportion always Suited to the number of goods Indians, he has to Supply, and are called—

Strouds and Equivalents
To 19 pieces or 1 bale Strouds, for mens flaps & [inserted:100] mens &c. & blankets
50 shirts for men half checkered half white
1 piece all wide callico
1 piece narrow ditto
[editor's note: a vertical line to the right of the above two items, and to the right of that, the words "For womens Jackets"]
30 yards or 1/2 a piece white plains farmers boot stockings
2 dozen long knives
2 pieces duffel blankets 16 each for the men
and two horse loads of Ammunition
100 pounds of powder
200 pounds ball
100 Flints— to the whole of which is added
4l—. paint
1 M needles
Thread &c
[editor's note: bracket to the right of the three lines above, text to the right reading "called truck"]
The house of Panton & Company have hitherto Imported from England, annually about 1.5,00.— pieces of Strouds and equivalents, for the consumption of the Southern Nations of Indians—they have their Supplies of rum and Salt altogether from the Spaniards, who oblige them to buy these articles from [obscured:them] and make them pay three dollars per bushel for Salt delivered at Pensacola.—
The rumour of the Spanish War prevented the arrival of their Ships with the usual Supplies last year, and Mr. ONeal the Governor of Pensacola having refused to open the Kings Magazines to the, as had been Sometimes done before, the Indians became much distressed for ammunition, and the chief was obliged to open his little Magazines and deposits in several towns in the Nation, in order to furnish his people for the winters hunting—he endeavoured to keep it a secret but it
it is not the less true
To be an Indian trader in the Creek Nation, is the last miserable resort a man can come to, except that of being and Indian dependant upon them, as a purchaser with his skins—
The Indians sell Deer Skins for two bits or 25 cents per pound in the nation, and the highest price for beaver is 75 cents per pound—these are then [blot] paid in goods at 5 or 600 pCent advance upon them.
A keg of taffia (Spanish rum) about 2 1/2 Gallons will command a horse worth in the Market at St Marys from 20 to 30 dollars, and three kegs will procure one worth a hundred [inserted:dollars] in the United States.—
M—. Telfair and Mr. Jos Clay of Georgia have set up a trading house, under the direction of Mr William Clark at Capt. Smiths Station on the Altamaha river, in order to divert some part of the Indian Trade to that quarter—Mr. Clark Sent letters to the many of the Indian country traders, to invite them to their old trading place in October last, but the letters came directly into the hands of M'Gillivray and
never reached the traders.—
The Altamaha is universally allowed to be the most convenient place of trade for all the Creeks & Cherokees—If the United States had the management of the trade at that place, they would annually derive from the Indian Country nearly 200.000 Deer Skins besides all the furs— But it is not likely this could be done with out Panton and his associates were induced to become Citizens of the United States, who are so firmly fixed in th[blotted:ei]r influence with Indians Spaniards and their English connexions, that it would be a necessary Step to bring them into the country in order to keep them and the Indians quiet.— And from what M-. McGillivray has observed, they would remove their house to that place provided they could be protected from the Southern people, with whom they are not on an amicable footing—Some of them having formerly been Subjects of South Carolina & Georgia, were placed on the black list as Tories, and had their property Confiscated.——
I have announced hereto the act of parliament whereby the duties on Skins exported from East and west Florida by this House, are taken Off, to favour the concern, and To encourage the exertions of the house to a further monoply of the trade no doubt—

A Vocabulary of the Principal Words in the Language of the Creek Indians

All total.....Homulga
Arms human.....Stasotsaba
Arm bands .....Staſotsaba tokanáwá
Aunt ..........Chepawa hiawa i.e. uncles wife
Bell for an horse ...Chumcaca
Basket ............Sackah
Blanket.......... Ocheda
Boots ............Huffadatea
Buttons ........... Joteeca
Bald ........Chassala
Binding woolen ....Tuckholawa
Beads ....... Cannawa
Bullet ............... Etchleah
Boy ................... Cheponcha
Beloved . ........... Steutsacco
Bread ................... Tuckaligus
Butter .................Wacapissaneha
Bull ...............Waca honunnewa
Barn or Corn house Tohtoh
Bitch ....Fehocta
Bridle ......Sooksaca
Black .........Lusleslee
Blue .............Colocda
Bag ......Soc
Bad ............ Hollowax cha
Black drink ...... Ussa
Belly ......... Nuttea

Cow ............ Waca
Calf .............. Wacaga
Child ............ Hopowacka
Colt ............. Cheluccoga
Cat ............ Calá
Cock ............. Tolosa honunnewa
Chin ........... Enolocah
Coat ........... Jolcoco dalucco
Crane (hooping) ... Watoola
Crane (white) .. Tootshooca
Creek ........... Hutaha
Canebreak ....... Quoilucco
Clay ........... F. Folca
Cry ....... Akilsla
Cut .............. Ekise
Corn .............. Autscha
Cheese .......... Waca,pissa,neha, Tuckaligus
Croping (of ears &c.) ..... Uts unna wela
Come (along &c.).... Hudduts Cha

Drink ............. Escoscha
Dog ............... Effa
Dog mad ........... Effa ha jou
Duck .............. Footsa
Day a ........... Amo or Neeta ※
Deer ............... Echa
Deer Skin ........... Chewalpa
Dance ............ Hoponus
Devil ....... Stessuls[?] usega
Dead or to die .... Elech lanes Cha
※ Amo or more commonly called Neetá signifies the day—of the sun[.] Neellee which is the night signifies the day also but it is of the moon—.

Ear bobs...Hotsea Talca
Evening...Youaftsk cha
Eat...Humbux cha
Embrace...Ike Izapula cha or Ike pulga puls cha


Fingers........Chinga Wysaga
Fox .............Choba
Fire .............Toatca
Female (all sorts) ....Hookatuckee
Towls ........Totalassa
Feet............Elee Tuppixa
Flint ...........Tlonota

Goose [undecipherable] wild....Ahaqua
Girl ...................Hoctocco
Gorget.............Chatoco nawa
Gold .............Toco Nawalana
Garters............Sta sa wanaca
God..........Hesakadum Esee
Glad.........Chee Cha
Gun...............Eat Cha'

Hear or heard........Opohiunkscha
Hoe................Slui Ca
Hill or Hillocks....Culliga
He or him.......Ansa or eima


1 I
2 K
3 L
4 M

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I or me...Amease estea

Keys...See [euhrace?]

Liquor [undecipherable]...ya huello pipsawa
Leather draping...Chosa Lana
Lewd Woman...Hoe etaleas
Lying down...Wacus cha

Milk...Unea pipsa
Mars...Chelucco tahleh
[Malas all souls?]...Honunnewah
Moon...Neatles huys a or mighty moon
Morning...Hutt hita
Mixture of colors...dubbls-huttsea

Noon...Fills hulligo
Nobody...Estea aogo Term of reproach
Nose bob...Stabo a lalkah
Negatively...Ecose chob


Pumpkin...Cha Sa
Potatoes...Ah hah
Pease...Tallots hapa
Pipe Tobacco...Heechees pacawa
Powder Gun...Tohotowa

River...Halecha lucco
Rogue Rascal...Hoguckla Mas Cha
Riding...Holigus cha
Resting...Holigus cha
Repeshing...Holigus cha } Synomous terms [from Riding to Recreating]
Regaleing...Holigus cha
Recreating...Holigus cha
Rocks...Tesus uppa
Running, racing to...Leitacuscha

Same the...Madawa
Same not the...Madokes cha
Swming...Oho muy ques cha
Sun...Neata Heysa or daily sun
Stars...lootsa umba
Shine or lights...Hasota cha!
Squirrel...Ee thee loc theh
Scalping...Ekwa Nenduttuh cha!
Smoke to...Escose cha - the same as to drink or regale
Swamp...Och pelofa
Square the...Chocolucco
Stop...Hooelutts cha

Turkey wild...Pimawa
Tobacco...Hee chee
Thief...Holcoba Masta
Town white...Tullafa hulca

V 116
wampum .......conaptalka
war leader.......Homalah
waisle......Sock Sa
walking..........yacoppus cha
yellow or green Laua
{drawind of a downward spiral with a roman numeral II beside it}

1. Huinga
2. Hocola
3. Totchala
4. Hosta
5. Chaca
6. Epauga
7. Cocaba
8. Chenepa
9. Oslaba
10. Epaula
Once 10..Epaula__hunga
Twice 10..20 Epaula__hocola
30. Epaula__Totchala
40. Epaula__Hosla
50. Epaula__Chaca
60. Epaula__Epauga
70. Epaula__Coloba
80. Epaula__Chenepa
90. Epaula__Oslaba
100. Chappa__Hunga
They cannot well manage more than an hundred
Familiar Sentences
Q. Master where did you come from } Q. Estem aals cau?
A. I came from the great beloved Mans house } A. Steulsacco chocla halcs cha
Q. Where are you going? } Q. Estem aals cha choola
A. I am going a hunting. } A. Faca Noya alls cha
Q. Where are you going? } Q. Esteem aals cha choola
A. I am going to the Oconce River } A. Ocoonce Noya ells cha
Bring up my horse } Chelucco Sa mulls cha
I am going to hunt for my Horse } Chelucco Na hoopoya est cha
Give me some water } Owewa Susmenutts cha
Give me some [physie?] } Helesewa Suminutts cha
Come into the house } Auts Se ha it
Sit down } Holigus cha
Very well or all's well } Momus cha
Yes I Think as you do } Momus Comus
aye aye [to?]

I am glad to see you } Cha Cha Huk eneda cha
I am sorry for it } auts cha mullee cha
I see you } Che higa unks cha
I smell it } cheenoye unks cha
I see it } lo he Loye est u unks cha
I hear it }Epo ha unks cha
Q. What do you want } naga, enchia, cha en cha
A. I want Tobacco } Heechee, chia cha, en cha
You lie (moffensive?) } Losa est cha
The Creeks have no word to express taste—it is distinguished by the quality of the thing tasted of—as bitter, sweet, salt, &c.
A great ways off... Hoopoya cha
A long time Since...Hoopoya maals...halas cha
I lose by...Awooles cha!
At the interpretation of Speeches—at the ending of each sentence—the word Magadokes Cha! is pronounced with a strong emphasis—which has the different Signification of

So he saysThese are his SentimentsSuch is the LanguageThis is the talk &c.

The Indians in Communicating
important Speeches to each other, may frequently use the word Timbonoya etscha signifying thus.—

I heard him say soThen he told meSuch was our Conversation &c.

All the vowels in the English alphabet are found very useful in this language, but more particularly the A. O and U the A is sounded broad in every instance withal a single exception
The Participle Chee is used arbitrarily and by the tone of voice in which it is pronounced, determines the force, and often the meaning of the expression.—
[pen flourish]

Further remarks and Notes on the Creek Nation & the Country._
Ten miles below little Tallassie on the Alabama river, there are three mounds which appear to have been intended as works of defence_ The following Sketch is the copy of one taken on the spot on the 18th of November 1790 [flourish]
[Drawing (aerial view of mounds and earthwork) labeled 1. 2. 3.]
No. 1 is a mound of 25 feet high on a base of 33 feet diameter by measurement — the Sides of it are so upright that the cattle cannot get upon it to feed — the top is flat and has several trees growing upon it, the largest was a hickory lately cut down. The Stump is eighteen inches in diameter— the large mound seems to have been a Castle from whence to annoy an enemy
on the Water directly before it, and the two lesser ones, having a fair view up and down the river fo [sic] 3/4 of a mile each way, appear to have been places to look out. The present Indians know not what they were intended for, or how long since they were made —
In the high country of the upper Creeks below the towns of the Natchez between [overwritten:Two] mountains, there is the traces of a regular fortification of an oblong square, containing near an acre of ground having four bastions and a gateway.—
The banks are about Three feet above the surface [overwritten: Of the] ground, & the ditch which is the inside, as much below the surface, one of the bastions contains a large limestone Spring of water, which rises in this spot, and has nearly water enough to carry a mile
There are preserved in the Tuckabatches town on the Tallapoosie river, some thin pieces
wrought brass, found in the earth when the India[ns] first dug for Clay to build in this place_ Nobody can tell how long since they were dug up, but the Indians preserve them as proofs of their right to the ground having descended to them, by their departed Ancestors, from time immemorial—
A winters expedition unto any part of the Indian Country lying between the latitude of 30 and 34. and the longitude of Charleston & the Mississippi might be made eligible— The softness of the climate and the ever green canes as food for horses in the first instance, unite[?] in its favour, in preference to surveying[?] it in the heat of Summer— Until the 1st of January there is seldom much danger from the rivers being flooded by rains, and they are low again in April.—
From the middle of October to the middle of March, there is very few Indians (except feeble old Men and women without arms[?] and ammunit[ion]
that remain in any of the towns in the country— All the corn they do not carry out a hunting, is left behind in their towns under the care of the old people, which might be collected into magazines for the use of the army, or destroyed before any force could be collected in the country to oppose its progress_ And if an army could remain in the country until April or May, the Indians would be prevented from planting in due season, and such as should not run away beyond the Mississippi, would be completely subdued by famine in one years time. [flourish]
Should an army march into the country of the Creeks the best path and nearest way would be by the rock landing on the Oconee, light artillery might be sent up the Altamaha and Oakmulgee river to the crossing place within a hundred miles of the Cussetah and Coweta towns which is the heart of the lower Creeks, and to be once destroyed would strike a dreadful panic [blotted:into]
through the whole Nation_ Indian trading and hunting paths, are always traced out on the highest and most eligible grounds, such as afford good food for horses and avoid bogs and swamps——
The path from thr head of St Marys is miserable having no food or water and yet full of miry bogs and thick swamps.—
The path from the Upper Counties of Georgia leads over Mountains and sharp hills all the way and penetrates the Indian Country at the northern skirts of those Settlements.— [flourish]
The Rock landing path leads in a direct line from Captain Savages's post to the Cowetas, the centre of the lower towns— this path is generally over high dry Ground, and continually intersected by cane breaks that would afford food for 5000 horses the year round. [flourish]

Remarks on the Cane
The Cane grows promiscuously in the Valleys
and about the rivers or small branches throughout all the wildernesses possessed by the Southern Indians_ It is of a bright green by in Summer, but in the months of December and January the lower leaves of the old shoots turn yellow, and decaying slowly at last fall off, while the tops and the young shoots from the ground, remain growing fresh and green all the year, but it grows slower in winter than in Summer — Canes and the reed, an inferior species of cane are full of sweet nutriment, and found to be the best kind of food for horses and horned cattle_ they soon fallen on it without tasting any other food or salt_ Indian traders and other travellers have stated places in the woods, where they make a point of stopping to bait or encamp to refresh their horses_ these places are as well known and as much spoken of by them, as good taverns are among the whites.—
The cane is very useful to the natives, the stalk being of a firm texture is used in building houses, making furniture, matts, wattles, pipe stems, arrows for small game, fluted Whistles &c &c &c &c —.—
Remarks on the Characters of the Choctaw[s]
The Choctaws are acknowledged by the Creeks to be the hardiest race of men, the swiftest hunters and the madest warriors in the world — they have had many trials of skill and dexterity together in their respective ball grounds, and the Choctaws have always beaten the creeks — the latter hate them for their Superiority
The Creeks call themselves the best swimmers in America, but traders say the Choctaws excel them, having learned the art of swimming principally from the Creeks when they were at war with each other— the Choctaws and Creeks both, learn their children to swim as early as they are learned to walk
The Choctaws are distinguished by wearing all their hair in a slovenly manner about their necks[;] they go stark naked winter and summer— The traders represent them to be meek and servile, in their often suffering themselves to be kicked or flogged by the white traders with impunity— but in [unclear]
they are known to be men of great firmness and fidelity, never having been known to betray the firm [overwritten:] Confidence or trust reposed in them.——
They are universally allowed to be in the most forlorn state of savage barbarity of any nation of Indians in America— It is a proverb in the Creek Nation that nothing can equal the Savage barbarity abject of servility of a Spanish deserter in their Country except a Choctaw Indian. And the traders rate the value of a Spaniard in the nation as they do a negro i.e. at about £50. Sterling.—
The choctaws have always discovered the utmost contempt for [unclear] of [danger?] or death.—
When a murder happens among them, the aggressor finding he must suffer, resigns himself freely up to the friends of the deceased, with cheerfulness and composure, manifesting the utmost contempt for a life which is in the power of his adversaries; And having painted himself, in a frightful manner, repairs singing and dancing all the way to the place destinedfor
his execution, bidding defiance to any kind of punishment or torture but what he is able to bear like a man and a warrior, and seems to rejoice in an opportunity of shewing his great fortitude, while suffering under the operation of the knife or hatchet without a symptom of fear or weakness—
A prisoner taken in war is equally unconcerned when his enemy is preparing the tortures for him.—
They have a charnel house in each town where they deposit the bones of the dead.—
When a Choctaw dies he is kept above ground until his flesh is rotten. A priest (which each town has one especially appointed who keeps his nails long and sharp for the purpose) picks all the putrid flesh from the bones_ When the bones are dryed they are put into a basket and deposited in the Charnel House, or as it is termed by the traders the bones house, where the relatives repair daily to perform the rites of mourning and lamentation in loud howlings and doleful ditties—
[W]hen the charnel house is filled with bones they burn it down and build another.— [round flourish]

The Creeks have one trait in their character not heretofore mentioned— which is a convincing proof of the finished state of barbarity in which they now live.—
The unnatural habits of sodomy and beastiality are familiar to them, and pass unnoticed as a crime or even as an impropriety.—
Their rum drinkings often produce scenes too horrible to relate, and too abominable to be seen or remembered if it were possible they couild be forgotten.—
[spiraling flourish, vertical, to bottom of page]
Melfords account of the Spanish Strength [undecipherable]
the Floridas and Louisiana 1790
Provincial Troops and Levies at St Augustine and onSt Johns river . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 400 —
The Garrison at St Marks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
[space] do [space] Pensacola .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
[space] do [space] Mobile and Tombigby . . . . . . . . 150
[space] do [space] at the Natchez . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
[space] do [space] Red river west of the Mississippi . . . . 100
[space] do [space] In the Illinois Country . . . . . . . . . 300called the orleans or Louisiana regimt — Men 1.600
Capt John Linder of Tensau near Mobile informed me that the number of american families that havebecome Spanish Subjects since 1783 amount to 1720 Ns —
At Tensau near Mobile bay . . . . . . . . . . 90 families
on Tombigbee river . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130—
At the Natchez on the Mississippi . . . . . 1500
[Aligned with column of figures:] 1720 families
All the soldiers in the districts are under the immediate orders of the Military Commandant[s]
[sub]ject to Martial Law, with an appeal from stage to stage up to the Viceroy of Mexico—
The property of the Subject after his decease is to be managed by the Commandant whose fees established by Law are
5 dollars per day while appraising the Estate
5 per cent on the property
5 per cent on Sales of ditto
5 per cent for returning Do
5 per cent for shipping Do if the heirs are beyond sea
And half a dollar for signing his name.—